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Case names (but not the citations) appears in italics.

e.g. Miller v Jackson [1977] QB 966 (CA)

Neutral citations

Neutral citations have been about since 2001.

Neutral citations are sometimes used, in particular when a report of the case has not been published.

e.g. Apple Corps Ltd v Apple Computer Inc [2006] EWHC 996 (Ch)

Names of Judges

When writing the names of Judges it is preferable to write Tuckey LJ rather than Lord Justice Tuckey or Blackburn J rather than Mr Justice Blackburn or (even worse) Justice Blackburn.

Judges of the House of Lords are called 'Lord' e.g. 'Lord Diplock'. Judges of the Supreme Court should be referred to as 'Lord Walker SCJ'.

Cases retrieved from subscription services (Westlaw/Lexis etc)

Apply the rules with regards to the best reports available. Remember that the online subscription services are electronic versions of the relevant case reports found in the library. It is only on occasions that you will have unreported cases, where often the neutral citation will be available.

It is not necessary to write out the full website address for either Westlaw or Lexis. Instead, refer to the relevant volume of the Law Report in the usual way and to the particular page numbers (these are usually indicated by a number in bold font preceded by an asterisk within the text).

Popular names for cases

Some cases are known by a popular name which refers to the subject matter or to the parties. If so, you can put this in brackets after you have used the full title on the first occasion you mention it and then use the popular name thereafter:

e.g. Panayiotou v Sony Music Entertainment (UK) Ltd [1994] All ER 755 (George Michael case)

Square or round brackets?

Where the year is relevant to identifying the case then this appears in square brackets.

e.g. R v Kelly [1999] QB 621 (CA)

Where the volume, rather than the year is relevant to identifying the case then this appears in round brackets.

e.g. Walsh v Lonsdale (1882) LR 21 Ch D 9 (CA)

Quoting and page numbers

When you quote from a particular passage in a case, make sure that you include the page number (or numbers) at which the quote appears.

 e.g.  R v Kelly [1999] QB 621 (CA) 633

R v Kelly [1999] QB 621 (CA) 633-635

Best series of Law Reports to use

Some reports are considered more authoritative than others. The hierachy of reports for England and Wales cases is as follows:

  1. Official Law Reports (Appeal Cases, Chancery, Family and Queen's Bench)
  2. Weekly Law Reports (WLR)
  3. All England Law Reports (All ER)
  4. More specialist reports e.g. Lloyd's Law Reports

In the case of European Union decisions the hierachy of reports is as follows:

  1. The Official Reports (European Court Reports (ECR))
  2. Common Market Law Reports (CMLR)
  3. Cite the relevant notice in the Official Journal where a report is unreported.

Unreported cases

Use the neutral citation if the case has one.

If not, state the court and the judgement date in brackets after the case name:

e.g. Trade Glow UK v Wigmore St Investments (Chancery Division 11 September 2009)

European Court of Human Rights

Pretty v United Kingdom (App no 2346/02) (2002) 35 EHRR 1

An example of how to cite a Grand Chamber decision:

Burden v United Kingdom [GC] (App no 13378/05) (2008) 47 EHRR 38 [GC]