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Referencing and plagiarism - Skills Guide

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APA Referencing

Below you will find the basic rules you will need for referencing the most common texts. If you would like to reference something more specific, you can click here to access Cite Them Right. An example reference list can be found in the box to the right. To see information on APA 7th access Cite Them Right. 


APA In-text Citation Rules

When citing you should include the author's surname and the date of publication. 

How you punctuate this depends on the structure of your sentence:

  • Recent research suggests that ... (Smith, 2010)

  • White (2014) found ...

If you are citing a theory you have read in a more recent text, you cite both:

  • (Hopwood, 1993, as cited in Gabeal and Jones, 2018)

If you are taking a direct quote from a book, include the page number. 

If you are paraphrasing, then a page number is not required. 

For texts with one or two authors include all names in every citation.

For texts with three, four or five authors include all names in the first citation and then abbreviate to the first author and et al. for subsequent citations.

For texts with six or more authors abbreviate to the first author name and et al. for all in-text citations.


APA Referencing Instructions


Author(s). (Publication year). Title (Edition number if it is not the first edition). Place of publication: publisher.


Author(s). (Publication year). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(Issue), Page numbers.


Author. (Year the site was published/ updated). Title of Internet site. Retrieved from URL

Departmental Publications

Government department. (Publication year). Title (Report series and number). Retrieved from URL