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Referencing and plagiarism - Skills Guide

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Harvard Citing and Referencing

Below you will find the basic rules you will need for referencing the most common texts. If you would like to reference something more specific, you can click here to access Cite Them Right. An example reference list can be found in the box to the right. 


Harvard Citation Rules

When citing you should include the author's surname and the date of publication. 

How you punctuate this depends on the structure of your sentence:

  • Recent research suggests that ... (Smith, 2010)

  • White (2014) found ...

If you are citing a theory you have read in a more recent text, you cite both:

  • (Hopwood, 1993, as cited in Gabeal and Jones, 2018)

If you are taking a direct quote from a book, include the page number. 

If you are paraphrasing, then a page number is not required. 

For texts with one, two or three authors include all names in every citation.

For texts with four or more authors you can use the first authors name and et al. 


Harvard Referencing Instructions


Surname, Initial. (Year published) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Surname, Initial. (Year publishes) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, Volume(issue), page range.

Surname, Initial. (Year published/updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Organisation (Year published/updated) Title of web page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Departmental Publications

Government department (Year publishes) Title. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).